leading industries, by meaning, namely playing a leading role in the local economic of the manufacture, it refers apt the proportion of those who preoccupy a decisive worth, the use of perfected technology, tall growth, mighty industrial linkage, and the all zone apt other industries there namely a strong leading role in economic evolution of the industry. From the measure of leading industry side, should be in the gross citizen product or national earnings account as a large proportion or in the future may list because a large proportion of the industrial sector; from a qualitative outlook, ought be in possession of the nationals major status, can have aboard economic growth have a certain clash ashore the speed and quality, its small enough apt motivate evolution and changes in other industries and the economy alterations, which led to rising economic sectors.
meaning of the chief features of the supply constraints, demand constraints, technological constraints fastening employ, training class constraint effects related with chose industry benchmark benchmark benchmark productivity rate of increase in growth potential technology-intensive benchmark benchmark benchmark the sustainability of employ development absences of the benchmark selection criteria and the potential applicability of rapid technological progress and strong sector-led employment effects of good and strong import substitution or export capability of China has chosen the food industry, automotive industry, construction industry, electronics industry, the meaning of conveniences in the industrial structure, in the main control status, the proportion of larger, higher overall efficiency, and other industries associated with high, a larger role in driving the national economy, with great growth latent of the industry. Leading industry refers to a certain stage of economic development, their growth is high, and high innovation rate, rapid presentation of technological innovation, for a certain stage of technological progress and industrial upgrading of large critical conversion lead role and enhance the role of economic growth driven by strong and radiate industry. In the industry life cycle, the leading industry in the growth stage; at manhood is the pillar industry; by its embryonic stage is the leading industry. Main features of the first, leading industry should be able to generate more industry driven and role in promoting the industry, is associated
to Japan before and behind the early textile industry is the leading industry
and the larger lateral correlation of the industry; Second, the subsistence and role of the leading industries will be affected by specific resources, systems and historical and cultural limitations, so a assorted country or countries with differ stages of economic development leading industry is not the same, it will be affected depends on resources, institutional and environmental elements such as changes in succession. For sample, the array of succession of Japan’s leading industries are: Textile Industry → iron and iron, mechanism, chemical industry → cars, household electrical device industry → electronics industry and other high-tech industries. Third, the leading industries should have the series of succession. As the leading industry have to be skillful to elicit a current generation of leading industries, therefore, is the leading industry in a particular phase below specific conditions, the result of choice. If conditions change, the aboriginal group of leading industry role in driving the economy will disable, to be replaced by a new generation of leading industries; the fourth, leading industry should have multi-level ecology. As developing countries in the industrial framework adjustment and optimization of the process, it is necessary to solve the problem of the rationalization of industrial structure, merely likewise the advancement of industrial structure to solve the problem, accordingly, in a strategic location of the leading industries should be a leading industry group, and showed multi-level features, to effect multiple of the target. Constraints, claim constraints claim constraints are chiefly China over the past few decades to manner long-term accumulation rate is also high the demand structure deviation. With leading industry choice
constraints should be thought
Other countries demand the same level of per capita income likened to the structure, demand structure of China in 2000 a large deviation, mainly in the purchaser many higher proportion of food expense, non- food consumption (consumer products and consumer services) is too small. World Bank forecasts namely by 2000 China’s share of food disbursement in household consumption accounted for 44% ~ 49%, China in the choice of the leading industry in 2000 should not overlook this important difference. Supply constraints supply China’s main vigor infrastructure constraints is a solemn absence of raw substances and infrastructure. China is currently great efforts to the development of basic industries, but may use the resources (mainly money) and the future needs of the huge gap among the point of outlook, regardless of the 1990s how to enhance the investment ratio, elementary industries are unlikely to soothe the shortage. By 2000, the same level of development with other countries, per capita vigor share compared to China’s per capita share of very low stamina, raw substances, product supply shortage is also very famous. Employment constraints Chinese employment fatigue supply constraints mainly large, resulting in huge employment pressure. According to the position of China’s population age structure, to the end of this century, China’s working-age population in developed countries than entire the world’s population ages and more than 20 million also. In appending, rapid rural labor convey to non-agricultural industries, and beyond increases the pressure on employment. Faced with this position, the choice of leading industry had to the nestle of labor and employment issues important position on. Science and technology, education technology revolution in the new constraints continue to impact on existing national industrial structure, it has developed opener appearances of the impact of industrial structure is steel, automobile and other orthodox pillar industry in decline, when the microprocessor, aerospace, robotics and other emerging industry has developed quickly. In this multinational environment, China is adapting industrial structure, they should converge on the development of new industries, but also to see China as a developing country still absences a comprehensive development of new industries should have the power of science and technology and education. China is still lagging back the overall level of industrial technology, and irregular development, with multi-level features. China Technology Development and subject to the constraints of national cultural and educational level. According to statistics, China’s current aggregate workforce, university educated folk accounted for only about 1%, far backward the developed countries the level of the current time. Above shows that China can not happen in the emerging high-tech industries and narrated industries dominate changes. Of lesson, China also has developed some high-tech aptitude to concentrate on developing some new industries, it is fully feasible. However, whether divorced from the actual situation in China, direct sham of the contemporary United States, Japan, Germany and other industrialized countries, simply the high-tech industries as the leading industry, the industrial system in China is jump to build new, the antique fault structure and technical faults, harm the economy of the customary development. In short, China’s science and technology, education, and make sure the level of China’s leading industrial group can not be completely high-tech, but is necessarily a multi-level pattern. Select the bottom achieve associated industry benchmark mid-1950s, U.S. economist Albert Hirschman in The signification of this benchmark: the administration should choose those effects associated with high industry as the leading industry, via government aid and converge on precedence development, to promote overall economic development. This outlook of Japan and some other small state-led industrial development in the selection and formulation of industrial policy had a meaningful impact. Leading industry for economic development and industrial structure of the guide leading role, mainly manifested by its associated effects, the leading industry union effect in 3 forms: first, prior to correlation effects: the leading industry and roomy market prospects for sustained development, will inevitably distend related equipment, technology and raw substances and other units of demand, thereby stimulating the industry to invest these elements of rapid development. Second, backward linkages effect: the leading industry union and strong, leading technology, rapid development, its subsequent development of the industry to provide more products and technologies to create better conditions, induction of these follow-up industry. Third, the lateral correlation effects: the development of leading industries, but also occasioned a catena of economic, social, cultural and numerous other changes, mainly in regions of the leading industries of the market boom, expanding employment opportunities, infrastructure construction and other industries form and growth have a positive impact. Growth potential benchmark industry growth potential, fundamentally depends on the industry’s income bounce of demand. And accordingly also known as the income bounce of the benchmark.
one of the leading industries: food industry
benchmark is the income elasticity in the international and servant markets, the demand for a product and national income growth rate ratio, which indicates that the product demand growth on the income the sensitivity of person growth. Income elasticity greater than l products and industry, its growth rate will be higher than the growth of national income; elasticity of less than 1 product and industry, the growth rate is lower than the growth of national income. With the growth of per capita income, high income elasticity of the product in the industrial structure, the proportion gradually additional, selection of these industries as the leading industry, will promote the continued high growth rates throughout the industry, will aid create more income. Products with high income elasticity of industrial sectors will be developed faster, occupy a larger proportion. This is the benchmark rate of productivity increase in Japan’s three generations of economists Shinohara level intended in the mid-1950s, after the Japanese government in the formulation of industrial policy, is based on this benchmark. It refers to a particular industry factor productivity and factor productivity in other industries the ratio is generally accustom to compare total factor productivity. Increase in total factor productivity depends on technological progress, rising rates of productivity benchmarks selected by leading industry, is to choose the technology advances faster than the technical elements-intensive industries, therefore, also known as comparable benchmark rate of technological progress. This benchmark reflects the leading industry to absorb speedily and mainly the specifics of technological advances, the priority development of the entire production factor productivity rose faster industry is profitable to technological progress, improve foreign interchange income, improved terms of trade and trade structure, improve the overall economic use of resources efficiency. Technology-intensive industries, technology-intensive benchmark not only by affecting the industry, technological advances influence the rate of increase of industrial productivity, but also has additional the role of industry Zengjiazhishuai (high technology to make high joined value). Industry productivity growth rate and employment change in the reverse feature of a certain relationship. Comprehensive productivity (TFP) index, including labor, capital, intermediate inputs such as changes in factor productivity, labor productivity, at the end of the day, is but one important aspect of labor productivity growth will be relatively dwindled amount of employment; and technology-intensive industries to send technological progress, rising rates and Zengjiazhishuai productivity, employment function is not necessarily affect the industry. Employment base from the industry factor intensity of view, the employment function of strong labor-intensive industries, capital-intensive industries, employment function is languid, technology intensive industries are two cases: Labor – employment in technology-intensive industries function relatively strong, and capital – and technology-intensive industries, the employment function is relatively weak. However, the actual employment in various industries and functional differences, but also depends on the level of industrial development, trends and characteristics. The relating density of employment from industry to see the one hand, the industrial additional value per billion or product bargains corresponding to the employment; the other hand, from the industry’s ratio of chief and labor to provide an employment opportunity to analyze the amount of capital required . Sustainability benchmarks the sustainable development of the fabrication industry, mainly in resource consumption (material consumption and energy consumption) is low and environmental pollution are 2 aspects. Basically, these 2 levels of economic efficiency by industry to analyze, for the material consumption and energy cost of the chapter itself, and environmental pollution can be the size generally reflected in the price of pollution control. As for the high-pollution industries with negative externalities, we can exclude these industries. Here the main contribution to the total assets by spend margins and industry to examine two indicators of China’s fabrication industry in various levels of economic efficiency. Selection criteria for potential demand for the product to be the leading industry in the servant and international markets with a relatively large, long-term, stable demand. Of course, one of the leading industries
first: the food industry
for the domestic market. Market demand is the leading industry of the selected survival, development and growth of the necessary conditions. There is insufficient market demand, leading industry will soon decline. Rapid technological progress and the applicability of leading industry choice must disburse special consideration the role of technological progress, the choice of the leading divisions should be able to focus on technological progress reflects the main directions and trends. At the same period, should also be eminent, China by the constraints of technology and education, the industrial technology is still very low, not over the pursuance of high-tech. China yet has technology and economic development of multi-level characteristics, technological advances also have different levels of meaning, not necessarily with the highest level. Therefore, China has chosen the leading industry, must take into account the multilevel nature of technological development and coordination, the role of selection associated with the start of Leading industry sector-led and strong selection must take full account of its role in promoting related industries, it should have a larger front and rear to reach and affect, through this association have driven on a range of sectors and promoting the role, and to derived for these divisions to further promote the role of other sectors, resulting in a chain response of economic development and accelerated effects. Employment effect China’s large population, a relative additional of labor compel, abundant labor resources in this regard is the advantage of the other, resulting in huge employment pressure. Therefore, the choice of leading industry to absorb the labor force should have a strong ability to create substantial employment opportunities, which can not only ease the employment pressure, but also give full play to China’s abundant labor resources and the comparative advantage. With import substitution or export capacity while China led industries should be subject to the domestic market as a market, but in open conditions, must also have a sense of international rivalry, emphasis on the role of international trade. Leading industries should be based on the domestic market, based on a export-oriented development potential in the international market, formed a strong competitive ability, in order both to increase the efficient supply of time, but also for the country foreign exchange. In the choice of leading industry should also disburse attention to selecting those who have some technical basis, but long-term massive reliance on imported products to focus on fostering the industry, import substitution products as soon as possible, and can on this basis, and constantly improve the technical level, the introduction of technology to enhance the absorption, transformation, innovation, wreck a China has chosen the food industry 1. Has a huge potential demand. From the above analysis, by 2000, China’s consumption structure, the proportion of food consumption still first. Domestic demand can only constitute a huge, long-term, stable market. Currently China’s food industry is over 100 billion yuan yearly output value of large industry, but there is still considerable development potential. 2. Promotion of traditional industrial technology. The food industry is typical of traditional industries, is a low level of technology industries. The food industry as the leading industry to support, through technical upkeep and absorb the introduction of advanced technology, not only can hasten the food industry’s own technological progress, and simple to infiltrate spread to other traditional industries, which can promote technological progress in the traditional industries, to promote low level of technology to improve. 3. Can promote the development of pertinent industries. First, the development of food industry can provide raw materials to drive the development of agriculture. With the increase in food processing depth, grade promotion, food manufacturing machinery, food coloring, additives, enzymes, nutritional supplements, conservation, cache devices, a variety of food packaging materials, the increasing demand. It can bring light industrial machinery, chemicals, periodical, glass, plastic, metal products and other industries. 4. Can be placed a large digit of labor force. Food industry is labor-intensive industries, and its development will transform a new labor force during the placement and transfer of rural labor force main site. In addition, the food industry the skill level required is relatively low, in line with the characteristics of the low quality of Chinese labor, can absorb large amounts of low cultural level of the workforce. 5. Has excellent export conditions. China’s extensive territory, normal conditions are conducive, the main harvest yields are higher than maximum of the earth. Especially in China’s agricultural products and a wide variety of crops and there are many distinctive, rare property is unparalleled in many countries, which provide for the food industry a solid material foundation. Coupled with a long history of Chinese food production, variety, there are many world-famous traditional products, while Chinese labor-abundant, low cost products, which are internationally competitive food industry participation in favorable conditions. One of the leading automobile industries: automotive 1 demand, short supply. As long as the conveyance to restrict imports, China’s domestic automatic demand greatly exceeds supply. In the long escape, regardless of trucks or cars have good market prospects and development potential. Focus on the increasingly well-developed commodity economy and quicken the pace of social functioning, the demand for cars is rapidly growing, China’s motorcar market has a potential market into a real market. Can not longer rely on a large number of imported cars to meet this demand, accelerate the development of China’s own car industry is mandatory. 2. Rapid technological progress and endow to the overall coordination of industrial and technological progress and reliability. Although the auto industry in Western countries has been reduced to a And they belong to the medium level of technology and hi-tech they are more easily absorbed and used their advanced technology and easier to pass, see into the traditional industries, traditional industries, accessible digested and accepted. Traditional technologies so they can become the intermediary transition to high-tech technology, bridging the high and low technology gap between, the overall industrial and technological progress to ensure the coordination and reliability. 3. Leading role of the related industries strong. Automotive industry has a high correlation, various sectors in the national economy, the automotive industry is driven by large, spread to a broad range of industries. Can drive the steel, oil, rubber, glass, electronics, draw, leather, plastics and other industries. 4. Can create many job opportunities. Automotive industry to provide more employment opportunities. As the use of a wide range of automotive, mobile, indirect employment absorption capacity and capacity of other production and consumption file can not be compared. 5. Ability to achieve the China’s auto imports has always belonged to one of bulk in the past 30 years, China has spent money on imported cars up to 260 billion, equivalent to 30-year capital investment to 4.3 times the entire automotive industry. Currently China’s auto industry already has a material and technical basis, with the ability to achieve import substitution. Imported cars in the block on the basis of China’s auto industry is actively explore the international market, the automobile exports increased year after year, in addition to development of Western countries has been high-tech industries, the automotive industry is gradually moving towards decline, which reached the Chinese auto industry provides an opportunity for the international market. Should seize this opportunity to acquire a tight foothold in the international market, and as much as possible to occupy the market. Construction 1. With good market prospects. China’s construction industry has a long-lasting and stable market. China needs to form the structure of long-term bias, resulting in construction of low-income elasticity. With the housing system reform, this situation will simply reversed. With economic development, industrial production continued to increase space and public facilities, the tertiary industry will also be developed, will generate strong demand for all kinds of buildings. Coupled with the new railways, highways, airports, bridges, piers and construction of various high-level mission of modern facilities, the construction industry seems possible to become China’s largest industrial sector. 2. High-class technology to promote industrial development. Construction is also a gentle level of technical level, and the auto industry as it is to connect high-and low-technology interlock, while promoting the industry to have a significant role in the development of high-class technology. 3. Extensive links with other industries. For the building industry is very broad, the cost of establishing products in China, 70% of material consumption, a total of almost 800 categories of architecture materials, 2,000 category, more than 30,000 specifications. It could also contribute to building materials, metallurgy, chemical industry, gasoline, forest, machinery and other related departments in more than 50, and internal elaboration, furniture, furnishings and so is its 4. Has a strong ability to absorb the labor force. Construction industry is labor-intensive and non-capital-intensive industries, the development of this sector that is less investment and employment volume. Which can give full activity to the advantage of China’s abundant labor resources, shortage of funds to avoid the drawbacks. 5. Has the potential to enter the international market. China Construction abundant human resources, low wages, diligent, and has a unique style of building, into the international market is an advantage of the industry. Construction industry into the international market, not only for countries to earn foreign exchange, and can stimulate the export of mechanical and electrical equipment and raw materials, serve several purposes. Electronics Industry 1. Has a broad development prospects. Electronics industry is an emerging industry, has a broad development prospects. China’s electronics industry has more than 10 gate type, main products are 1500 kinds. Electronics and electronic products and technical equipment, increasingly widely used in the production, life and other fields, the social demand-side wide, large, and persistent with long-term development needs. From the demand point of view, is that there are not problems. 2. Embodies the most advanced science and technology. Electronics industry is the high-tech industry representatives, it is the world’s new wag of technological revolution, the most lively emerging industries, the condensation of the most advanced science and technology. For all the departments of modern manner of production, inject new vitality, a mysterious impact on the development of modern industry. 3. Sector-led stronger. The electronics industry needs not only to provide a variety of large-scale industrial machinery, cumbersome equipment and processing for ultra, ultra, ultra precision machining equipment, and requires departments to provide a wide variety of models of complicated materials. So, the electronics industry will drive rapid development of industrial materials, machinery industry, chemical industry, and many other sectors of the larger development. 4. The relative employment effect. Electronics industry is technology, knowledge-intensive industries, it is not as good as the employment effects of the first three industries, but it involves a wide range of digestion in the emerging industry is the largest employment industry, may have placed a large number of vocational and technical perception of certain workers employment. And many industry employment does not require a high level of technology, science and technology on China’s level of education, it is not tough to achieve. 5. Have the ability to achieve import substitution and export potential. China’s electronics industry is also a great reliance on imports, not only a large number of complete sets of equipment imports, and domestic products, key components of low self-supporting, but also heavily dependent on imports. At present, China has taken steps to organize a planned domestic production to replace imports, by taking efficacious measures, is the ability to quickly implement import substitution. China’s export growth of electronic products quickly and has great potential. Although in recent years, rapid growth in exports of electronic products, but there is still great development potential. If you should be focusing on fostering, exports and export varieties are greatly increased. Competitive industries are those industries is again the total economy from the current possession of a share of output, running in good condition, basically logical delivery of resources, more efficient action of capital, in a certain region of space and time put into production among a high the ratio of the industry. In the industry life cycle curve, the dominant industry in general in the development of the mid-late maturity of this range, the driving role of the entire economy is in or about at its peak, but also in the lingering power of the recession on the morn of the economy driven by period is very short. Industries together with emphasis on the natural resources, the logical delivery of resources and the economic behavior of running. Only when they have been a relatively good combination of possible formation of competitive industries. Strictly speaking, still a pillar industry of the scope of industries, but industries are not necessarily able to station a pillar industry, because it is more emphasis on certain kinds of industries in the share of the total economy and its impact on related industries leading role. One or a level of development become a pillar industry to industry, must bring an end to … a long growth, development, competition, disposal, adult process, only those who survive through the harsh competition and has been growing, its economies of scale in regional economic output account for a large share of the industry are likely to become a pillar industry in a certain region. Pillar industry refers to the net output in the national economy in a large proportion of the industry. From the industry life cycle methodology, the general circumstance, the leading industry in its infant stage to the development period, between the pillar industries and competitive industries in mature, while others have already entered a recession. Throughout the process of economic development one, leading industries will play an increasing role, and pillar industries and industries have already embarked on a downhill. According to the methodology of development economics, a recession in the near future embark on the road for the industry, although it is still quite strong, we do not need to bring an end to … a variety of ways to retain their spending as the status of industry and competitive industries, because the opportunity cost of maintaining enough is high, it may dislike both the formation of a new pillar industry, may also affect the entire industrial structure upgrading. Competitive industries, pillar industries and leading industry, the interests of their target is not the same emphasis. Leading industry focus on the future of long-term development, emphasizing innovation to drive future growth advantage and effect; and pillar industries, competitive industries are based on the real economy, efficiency and scale, focusing on greater stability and efficiency. May not be the leading industry in the current economy have a greater impact on the industry, its current efficiency of resource use may be low, the input-output ratio is also complicated to satisfactory; and pillar industries, competitive industry is naturally in the real economy, a larger share , contribution to GDP is higher, the better the input-output industry. Further reading: 1
1. Cuigong Hao, 2