Thoracolumbar fracture classification

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Nicoll in 1949 will be divided into 4 types of thoracolumbar fractures:
front of the wedge fracture; lateral wedge fracture; fracture and dislocation; arch fracture. General Hospital of Nanjing Military Region, Xu Bin, and then the interspinous

tough with the location of fracture is complete and to determine its stability. Which unstable fracture of the bone wedge into the front
fold, lateral wedge fractures and lumbar vertebral fractures over 4; unstable fracture of the composite into the interspinous ligament damage
injury of fracture dislocation of all semi- , fracture dislocation, fracture, and lumbar arch 4 (L4), lumbar 5 (L5) of the laminar fracture.
1963 年, Holdsworth proposed two-pillar concept, namely: the anterior longitudinal ligament, vertebral body and intervertebral disc and posterior longitudinal ligament
for the first column, the vertebral column after the composite structure for the post. Damaged or not in accordance with posterior column fractures of the thoracolumbar spine is divided into two categories: (1) A Class: stable fractures, including compression wedge compression fracture and burst fracture;
(2) B categories: unstable fractures, including dislocation, fracture and dislocation stretch, rotation fracture dislocation.
60 to 70 years with the seat belt fracture of the deepening of understanding and complexity of thoracolumbar fracture mechanism intensifies, the old classification of thoracolumbar fractures has been difficult to meet the clinical needs
. Whitesides in double column based on the concept of comprehensive thoracic and lumbar fractures were classified into two classes-7:
(1) A Class: stable fractures, including compression fracture, burst fracture stability;
(2) B Class: unstable fracture, including the
80 years, with the fracture of the thoracolumbar spine injury mechanism and functional unit of the growing understanding, Gumley, etc. according to the pathological features of the posterior column damage, in turn flexion distraction fractures in 2 divided into three types :
(1) Ⅰ type: horizontal fracture line through the spinous process, lamina, transverse process and vertebral body pedicle into the room;
(2) Ⅱ type: horizontal fracture line in the spine through the intervertebral protrusion at the base into the lamina, than with the type Ⅰ;
(3) Ⅲ type: unilateral injury, fracture lines travel roughly similar to the type Ⅰ and Ⅱ fracture.
then Gertzbein and CourtBrown flexion distraction fracture of the anterior column fractures and vertebral destruction sweeping the status of classes, including the status of the anterior column fractures into three types, including:
(1) A type: The intervertebral disc injury;
(2) B type: damage to the anterior vertebral cortex by;
(3) C1 type: by the end-plate damage;
(4) C2-type: The inferior endplate injury.
vertebral destruction is also divided into three types of conditions, including: (1) D-type: wedge compression fracture; (2) E-type: burst fracture; (3) F-type: vertebral integrity.
On this basis, combined with Gumley other type of posterior column injury, fractures to flexion distraction combined to provide a classification scheme.
Denis proposed the concept of three columns, the people of the spine unit of structure and function of the understanding further deepened. The fracture of the thoracolumbar spine is divided into four categories:
(1) A Class: compression fracture;
(2) B Class: burst fracture; B class is divided into five types: (1) the upper and lower end plate; (2) the end plate; (3), the end plate; (4) burst rotation type; (5) burst flexor type.
(3) C Class: seat belt fracture; C Class fracture fracture line is divided into single-and double-level-type level, but also every type of bone injury and soft tissue injury of the points, combined for the four types.
(4) D categories: fracture-dislocation. Where D is the class there were three types: (1) flexion rotation fracture dislocation; (2) shear fracture dislocation; (3) flexion distraction fracture dislocation.
CT scan of the cross-sectional images so that people can more accurately assess the degree of injury of thoracolumbar fractures and three-column injury
understand the situation, so McAfee and CT of thoracolumbar fractures according to the performance of and the column by the force of
situation will be divided into six major categories of thoracolumbar fractures:
(1) wedge compression fracture; (2) burst fracture stability; (3) unstable burst fracture; (4) Chance fracture; (5), flexion distraction injury; shift injury. Displacement damage which include the word
90 years, given the existing lack of thoracolumbar fracture classification threshold, AO Pok camp and the American Orthopaedic authoritative institutions have launched their own classification. Magerl, etc. in order to double-column based on the concept of succession of long bone fractures were AO Pok system of classification of 32323, the thoracic and lumbar fractures were divided into three categories 9 group of 27 type, up to 55 species. Include:
(1) A Class: vertebral compression class: ① A1: crush fractures; ② A2: cleavage fracture; ③ A3: burst fracture.
(2) B class: stretch of double column fracture of: ① B1: mainly the posterior column ligament damage; ② B2: the main bone of the posterior column damage; ③ B3: the former by the disc injury.
(3) C Class: rotation of the double-column injury: ① C1: A class of fracture with rotation; ② C2: B type fracture with rotation; ③ C3: rotating 2 shear injury.


Gertzbein authoritative bodies on behalf of the American Orthopaedic classified as Category 3 9 types, namely:
(1) A Class: compression type, including squeeze-type (wedge), split-type (coronal), burst (full burst);
(2) B class: stretch class, including the rear soft tissue (subluxation), posterior arch type (Chance fracture), front disc-type (stretch slip);
(3) C Class: Multi-direction displacement categories, including before and after the type (dislocation), square side (lateral shear), rotary (rotation dislocation .)
In China, Zhang platinum to Denis classification based, focusing on the three-column injury, combined with state of the spinal canal obstruction sweep of thoracolumbar fractures class. Rao bookstores with current Ji common types of thoracolumbar fracture classification will be divided into five categories: (1) flexion compression fracture, in which the sub-type with Ferguson and Allen’s three categories are divided into 3 types compression; (2) burst fracture, which use the sub-type of burst fracture Denis classification of five kinds of type;
(3) flexion distraction injury, one of the type used Gertzbein of flexion distraction fracture classification of A ~ C2 sub- type;
(4) flexion rotation fracture dislocation, which has been disc dislocation and

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